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Of the more than 350 known species of parrots, nearly 100 are threatened in wild. Popular as pets, many are captured for the wild bird
trade or suffer from hunting or loss of habitat. Each species is an integral part of their environment and the extinction of even a single
species is a sad and permanent loss to us all.
Due to their popularity as pets, millions of parrots also share our homes. Their challenging
physical and mental needs are often misunderstood; their individual wellbeing
as a result.
The chestnut-fronted macaw or severe macaw (Ara severus) is one of the largest of the mini-macaws. It reaches a size of around 45 cm (18 in) of which around half is the length of the tail.
They can be found over a large part of Northern South America from Panama south into Amazonian Brazil and central Bolivia.
Their lifespan is listed as anything from 30 to 80 years of age.
The chestnut-fronted or severe macaw is mostly green in colour with patches of red and blue on the wings. The head has a chestnut brown patch just above the beak. The beak is black and the patches around the eyes are white with lines of small black feathers. It is the only one of the miniature macaws that has lines of feathers in the bare patches around its eyes. In the wild their typically gregarious personality can become more aggressive at puberty giving them the name Severe. This tendency can be curbed in captivity but the species requires significant handling to make a tame pet. It is 45–50 cm (18–20 in) long and weighs 300-410 grams (10.6-14.5 oz.)
The chestnut-fronted macaw nest in a hole in a tree. The eggs are white and there are usually two or three in a clutch. The female incubates the eggs for about 28 days, and the chicks fledge from the nest about 70 days after hatching
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Once these little bundles of green feathers have left the nest, they will stay close to their parents as they learn how to be a fully fledged parrot. They are playful, fun-loving and ready to learn.
In a few short weeks, they will be in discernable from the older juveniles of the flock, yet the innocence in their eyes will remain.
Soon they will venture away from the safety of their parents with other members of the flock, but will return to their parents in the evening full of wonder, adventure, excitement and an eagerness for the future.
Red Golden Pheasant
DISEASES IN BIRDS -AIR SAC MITES By Sadiq Bhaimia
Birds infected by ASM suffer from lung and airway disorders, ASM are respiratory parasites which affects the entire respiratory tract, all the way from the nostrils to the tiny air sacs in the lungs.
Common among the Canaries and Gouldian finches, they also affect other finches and birds. The Air sac mite infection is a parasitic infection. The mites block the entire respiratory tract and lodges itself in the tiny air sacs in the lungs.
SIGNS OF INFECTION
Any bird with mild infection will not show any signs. But in severe case following symptoms can be noticed.
Breathing with open mouth
Clicking sound while breathing.
Sometimes death can result in acute cases, due to choking of respiratory tract.
Consult a veterinarian
1. Scatt - One drop to be applied on the thigh of the bird.
3. Ivermecitin (Not safe). The medication should be precise.
Water for Birds
By Tony Silva
Every day I receive messages from across the globe regarding sick birds. Every one of the aviculturists writing me about a sick bird is asked about water quality. By water quality I am not asking if the water is clear. I am asking about the process through which it passes before it is given to the birds. In most cities, the municipal water system insures that the bacterial count in the water is kept at the lowest possible level to insure that humans do not sicken. Ozone, ultra violet radiation, chlorination, chloramine or other chemical or mechanical process is used to treat the water. But what if the water quality in the country is poor, or the birds are housed in an area where the water comes from a different source, such as a deep well, or broken pipes contaminate the water before it reaches your tap?
Over the years I have brought back water samples from many parts of the world. Many readers would be shocked at what a laboratory has been able to culture, even if every sample I brought back came from a hotel, where ostensibly the water should be secure even where the country´s public water would be deemed suspect.
The water we give our birds must be clean, but the solution to reducing illness does not end here. The way the food and water dishes are disinfected and treated are also important. I have visited collections where the water dishes are washed in soapy water containing a disinfectant. The breeders felt that they were doing the proper thing—but were they? In every case when I insisted that the water be tested at the end of the wash cycle, it was found that the dishes were being washed in bacterial soup. This is because organic matter can and will destroy the disinfecting properties of most chemicals. As more and more bowls are washed, the bacterial content in the wash water grows, this while the disinfectant properties in the water is reduced to zero.
To properly clean food and water dishes, these should be soaked in water containing soap, washed well, rinsed and then placed in a disinfectant before being rinsed. This is the only assured way that the dishes will be disinfected. In my collection, we take it one step further and place the dishes on racks in sunlight to dry. Sunlight is incredible at killing pathogenic agents. We can do this because in southern Florida sunshine is available for much of the year.
Another problem I have seen is how the bowls are treated before they are placed in the cage. I visited one collection where Klebsiella was claiming several birds monthly. After only visiting the facility for 15 minutes, I realized the problem. The washing and disinfection process was optimum, but then the bowls were thrown on the ground in front of the aviaries for replacement during feeding and watering. The bowls were being contaminated and as a result so were the birds. Keep the clean bowls on a cart and avoid letting them come in contact with soil, plants, dirty bowls, reptiles, mammals and other sources of contagion.
The water quality used for washing fruits, vegetables and greens or to soak seed is also important. Unless this water is clean, then one could literally contaminate the birds continuously. Drying the uncut fruits and vegetables can deter pathogens being passed along, but it does not offer absolute guarantee and can be difficult with certain foods, such as with greens; once cut, the moisture in fruits and vegetables can spread the contamination. With sprouting or soaked seeds, the water is absorbed directly and is retained in the growing cells. This is an area that the hobbyist needs to conscientiously examine. I always recommend that the same water used for the birds be employed in food preparation.
In my collection, we rely on a deep well for our water. When we first move to this location from the city, where we had access to municipal water that was treated with both chlorine and chloramine, we had birds sicken without cause; they would be active one moment, would become glassy eyed and then perish if they were not given intense medical attention. The problem was immediately the focus of my obsession. Food, fruits, vegetables and greens were tested. The seeds and pellets were scrutinized. The water was tested at different times of the day and daily for a week. Our work ethic was reevaluated. The result was that the water was found to contain low levels of Klebsiella, even after passing through an RO (reverse osmosis) filter and especially after heavy rains, and that these pathogens were the cause of the morbidity.
Because of this risk, an elaborate system was installed in a room that is kept locked. There the water passes through a microfiltration membrane that excludes pathogens down to 0.1 microns in size. The pathogens excluded by the membrane include Campylobacter, Salmonella and Escherichia coli, as well as protozoans like Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Once the water has left the microfiltration process, it undergoes RO (reverse osmosis) filtration, which is capable of removing particles down to 0.0001 microns in size and finally ultraviolet (UV) radiation before entering a storage tank, where it is chlorinated. The storage tank is opaque plastic but is kept in a dark room to deter algae growth.
The water specialist that I hired to examine the best means of disinfecting the water before moving the birds from the city to the country said that an RO system would be ample. It was not. Water can squeeze through the slightest gaps and then contaminated the storage tank. RO was thus not fully safe—an important point to cerebrate because so many people tell me when I question their water that they have an “RO” system. The UV system is efficient but the key is a slow transit time. When we flush the automatic water system, the UV system operates at full speed and then its efficacy is undermined. This is why chlorination was employed. The chlorine is tested daily. Testing the water at the drinking source arrived at the exact chlorine level required, as the longer the transit time the greater the dilution. It is presently kept at 4.5 PPM (parts per million) as this was found to be optimum and provides the 2.5-3 PPM what we desire at the drinking nipples.
In the previous paragraph, I alluded to drinking nipples. All of our birds are on an automatic watering system. This allows precious time to be saved in manually giving water to every cage and then changing it after the birds have fouled it by dunking pellets or other food, or depending on where the water bowl is placed by direct defecation from the aviary occupants or even from wild birds. Water bottles can prevent contamination but require very thorough cleaning to insure that they do not grow a bacterial film inside. They create as much work as the water dishes.
The PVC pipes carrying the water to the birds are grey Schedule 80, or the thickest grade available in the size we use (13 mm, ½ in). In the USA these pipes are used for electrical wiring. We initially used white PVC Schedule 80 piping, but found that in the strong Florida sunlight algae and biofilm grew inside. Also, the nipples were at first placed horizontally but were later lowered to -10° to prevent water from settling in the nipple. This also aided in keeping the nipple free from food; some birds (especially caiques) will put food in the tip of the nipple to soften it before eating it and this plugged the nipple with food, resulting in bacteria growing; the slight drop eliminated this problem.
To eliminate the growth of biofilm, the pipes are flushed regularly.
Biofilm is a mucous produced by bacteria to shield themselves from cleaners. (This is the same stuff that can plug your central air conditioning water drain.) Cleaners do not readily penetrate the biofilm. The bacteria proliferate and become crowded, so they release themselves into the water to find a firm foothold. I have had one breeder who was unaware of this risk culture a plethora of pathogens that ranged from Bortedella to Escherichia coli, which were slowly decimating his flock of lovebirds. The piping must be flushed and the nipples must be cleaned to deter this biofilm from growing.
In the case of the lovebird breeder, there was a heavy bacterial growth that the laboratory calculated at greater than 8 million colony-forming bacteria units per milliliter of water. Chlorination and allowing the chlorine to sit in the pipes reduced this level to less than 10 colony forming bacteria units but only after 4 hours. He had an RO system that had been quite costly but yet the problem continued. He learned that periodic flushing was part of the monthly protocol.
If you add vitamins to the drinking water, then the problem exacerbates, as the vitamins (with or without electrolytes) provides a rich broth for pathogens. Another commercial breeder who insisted on providing vitamins to his water, the culture revealed over 35 million colony forming units per milliliter! This is why vitamins should never be added to the water; they will merely enrich a bacterial broth. Vitamins are not necessary if the birds are on a good balanced diet or on pellets but if employed they should be sprinkled over softfood, which will be consumed rather quickly.
Another breeder, who needed to cool his birds off during the intense summer heat, employed fog misters, which would turn on during the hottest part of each day. He installed these after a visit, where I noticed that the birds were highly stressed; they hovered on the floor of their walk in aviaries panting to try and reduce their core temperature. The misters allowed the birds to bathe and cool off. Sadly my insistence created another problem. The water used by the birds for drinking passed through the necessary process to insure it was clean but the water in the misters was not. The birds would drink from the misters or would preen their wet feathers, thus becoming sick. When I paid a return visit, I saw the misters were connected to a garden hose and spigot. Like a brick hitting my face I saw the problem. When disinfected water was employed, the problem of illness was immediately eradicated.
Paying attention to water and how it is used is key to maintaining flock health. Without this, the breeder will continuously have to address illness in the flock.
Many will say that parrots drink stagnant or poor water quality in the wild. This is not completely true. Wild parrots have greater immunity to disease and an access to an array of items that inhibit bacteria, but they often drink water that is dark colored from tannins (giving it a “dirty” appearance) yet relatively bacteria free. Cultures that I have had done from water sitting in bromeliads and clefs in trees, both actively used for drinking by wild parrots, showed that it was relatively clean. If the water is unclean, I believe the birds will consume elements that are anti bactericidal. As an unrelated example, I have seen wild parrots eat the toxic seeds of Jatropha yet when I tried to feed these to my captive birds, they began to vomit violently. The cause was the presence of phorbol esters and curcin in the seeds. These chemicals were present in the plants the wild parrots were feeding on and in the fruit that I fed my birds. When I went back and again watched the wild parrots (Severe Macaws Ara severus and Orange-winged Amazons Amazona amazonica), I noticed that every time they ate the Jatropha seeds they fed on the bark of two trees. The bark bound with the toxins so they could be excreted.
Water quality is important and good water is key to maintaining the proper health of the birds.
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